• to increase the ability to identify possessive pronouns
• to provide practice in using possessive pronouns in place of
• to give practice in using possessive pronouns as objects of
A discussion concerning what to do about an unpopular
ordinance—the banning of skates and skateboards—takes place in the opening
segment of this lesson. The narrator points out that the boys and girls heard
in the discussion used possessive pronouns when talking about their skates and
skateboards. This leads to an exercise in which the student is directed to read
a story about ice skating and to fill in each missing word with the correct
The student works the exercise on page 2 by rewriting each
sentence, using a possessive pronoun to show ownership.
The narrator explains the information about prepositions found
at the top of page 3, then directs the student to circle the pronoun that is
the object of the preposition in each sentence of the exercise.
Grammarifics program is a multimedia series of 12 lessons designed to
supplement and individualize language instruction for students in grades 4
through 6, and for those at ages 12 to adult in need of remedial help. Each
lesson in the program consists of audio media and three reproducible activity
sheets. The audio combines expert instruction in grammar and usage with themes
that are relevant to the interests of students in the intermediate grades.
Central to the program is the development of the students' communication
skills. This is accomplished through analysis of sentence structure,
information of generalizations concerning English usage, and the application of
those generalizations in exercises which stimulate students' interest.
concentrates on nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, and adjectives. Many important
sub-skills related to these parts of speech are also presented. Each
audio-directed lesson begins with a lively introduction focusing on a theme
which should be familiar to most students. Special effects and dialogue are
often used to heighten students' interest in the material to be learned. The
narrators then guide the students through written exercises on the activity
sheets. Found on many of the activity sheets is a block of content material.
The narrator helps the students analyze the content material, draw valid
conclusions, and apply the content to the exercises presented on the activity
has been made to make all elements of the program enjoyable and meaningful. All
lessons are self-directing and self-correcting. This allows students to work
through the lessons at an independent rate and to evaluate their performances
privately. The narrators give complete instructions for doing the exercises on
the activity sheets. Games, puzzles, secret messages, codes, newspaper ads, and
lively illustrations are just a few of the techniques used to create interest
in the lessons. Two lessons are devoted to each part of speech covered in the
program. The parts of speech may be studied in any order, depending upon the
preparation of the individual student. The audio, which deals with each part of
speech, however, should be used in sequence. Lessons 11 and 12, "Putting
It All Together—Parts I and II," contain a complete review of the concepts
presented in the first 10 lessons of Grammarifics. These lessons should be used
after the student has worked through the first 10 lessons of the program.
USING THE PROGRAM
lessons in Grammarifics employ a variety of motivational techniques which are
designed to capture and hold the interest of students. Each audio begins with
music, special audio effects, or a short vignette played out by characters. The
students are then carefully guided through the entire lesson by professional
narrators who use a friendly, positive approach to language instruction. Timed
pauses are programmed into the audio to allow the students to complete brief
responses on the activity sheets. However, when more than a few seconds are
needed to complete a response or to read over specific material, an electronic
tone built into the audio signals the students to stop the player. Students
should be reminded that they may stop the audio whenever additional response
time is needed, or replay any material they may wish to hear. The use of
headsets is recommended to avoid distracting other students in the classroom
and to reinforce the interaction between student and narrator. The running time
of the audio averages approximately 20 minutes. The average working time of
each lesson is about 30 minutes. It should be remembered that this time is only
an approximation. Since the student stops and starts the audio several 'times
during the course of each lesson to read material or to complete exercises, the
actual time needed will depend on the student's working speed.
The Activity Sheets
illustrated activity sheets are used in each lesson of the program. All
activities are completed by the student as the audio presentation progresses.
The responses for these activities are checked and corrected by the student
through answers given by the narrators. The activity sheets offer a variety of
skill-building games and enjoyable written activities to increase the student's
understanding of parts of speech. All exercises are closely correlated with the
The Teacher's Guide
contains individual summaries of the 12 lessons in the program. Each summary
lists the skills objectives of the lesson, a description of each written
activity, and reproductions of all student activities with answers overprinted.
Included in the final pages of this guide are several creative follow-up
activities which may be used with small groups of students to reinforce the
skills taught in the program.